This artwork is from series 'Yoshitoshi musha burui (芳年 武者 旡類 - Yoshitoshi's Courageous Warriors)';
It depicts Lady Hangaku (坂額御前 Hangaku Gozen), a female warrior samurai, one of the relatively few Japanese warrior women commonly known in history or classical literature.
Tsukioka Yoshitoshi is widely recognized as the last great master of the ukiyo-e (a genre of woodblock printing and painting). He is also regarded as one of the form's greatest innovators. By the end of his career, Yoshitoshi was in an almost single-handed struggle against time and technology. As he worked on in the old manner, Japan was adopting Western mass reproduction methods like photography and lithography. Nonetheless, in a Japan that was turning away from its own past, he almost singlehandedly managed to push the traditional Japanese woodblock print to a new level, before it effectively died with him. ¹
Wikipedia. Accessed March 25, 2016. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yoshitoshi.