This artwork is known as "Four cats in different poses illustrating Japanese proverbs.
Utagawa Kuniyoshi (歌川 国芳?, January 1, 1797 – April 14, 1861) was one of the last great masters of the Japanese ukiyo-e style of woodblock prints and painting. He was a member of the Utagawa school.
The range of Kuniyoshi's subjects included many genres: landscapes, beautiful women, Kabuki actors, cats, and mythical animals. Reflecting his love for felines, Kuniyoshi also began to use cats in the place of humans in kabuki and satirical prints.
Wikipedia. Accessed March 25, 2016. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Utagawa_Kuniyoshi